As a result of the reforms (especially the increasing education and increasing number of newspapers in the Tanzimat period), that the Ottoman rulers made on the military field in order to bring the state back to its former power, a civil-military intellectual group that knew the ideas of the West came into existence. According to these intellectuals, whose prime purpose was to prevent the dismemberment of the state, reforms had to be made in the European style in order to the state to regain its old strength. This intellectual group, which started to discuss the Constitutional system from 1860, was called New Ottomans in the country and Jon Turks (Young Turks) outside the country. This is the group contributing to the process of the declaration of the I. Constitutionalism by their ideas. However, after 1877 they were disbanded by Abdulhamid and sent to exile. They have continued their activities in places where they have gone. Indeed, new intellectual groups that follow theirs lead emerged, thus the second Jon Turk movement started. As a result of this, the Movement of Union and Progress, which included almost all the Jon Turks, came to exist, and they declared II. Constitutionalism and took over the administration. In this study, firstly the reforms in the Ottoman Empire, which contributed to the emergence of Jon Turks, will be mentioned. Then, the first and second Jon Turks movement will be explained via who they are, what ideas they share, and what they do. In the study, it was aimed to show how civil-military intellectual groups have been striving for the liberation of states.
Jon Turks, Constitutionalism, reforms, Union and Progress Association
|Author :||Ghorban AZİMY|
|Number of pages:||580-598|